Here, in the North Caucasus, in Krasnodar, from July 1931.
The maintenance of the national consciousness of Ukrainians in the North Caucasus was influenced by the work of such Cuban prose writers as A. Holovaty, J. Mishkovsky, J. Kukharenko, V. Mova (Lymansky), J. Zharko, V. Potapenko, P. Kapelgorodsky, O. Piven, M. Kanivetsky, Cuban poets of the 1920s O. Kyriya, N. Shcherbyna, Y. Lytovchenko, V. Cherednychenko, K. Kravchenko, K. Tykhoi and others. It should be noted that Kuban, the life of Ukrainians here were previously constantly in the spotlight of "Greater" Ukraine. And this is no accident. Kuban – the only land on the globe, where from the end of the XVIII century. and during the XIX and to the 20s of the XX century. The traditions of the Ukrainian Zaporozhian Cossacks, transformed at the end of the 18th century, were actively preserved and nurtured. first to the Black Sea, and later to the Kuban Cossack army. And that is why here, in the lands of the North Caucasus, lived and lives the spirit of the Ukrainian freedom-loving Cossacks, the Cossack folk word, so objectively there was and still is a spiritual basis for the development of Ukrainian literature. In one of his letters, Taras Shevchenko called Kuban "Cossack Ukraine." Kuban Cossack lands were in the orbit of public interests and P. Kulish. In one of his works, "Psalter Psalm" written in the form of an address to the Ukrainian people, P. Kulish urges Ukrainians to wake up and think about the fate of great-grandchildren. In the style of the folk poetic word, he addressed his compatriots: "… I see the field with my eyes. Let grief not be rooted in it. We will cover that field with our thoughts, We will wet it with tears from the Vistula to the Kuban. topics for a personal narrative " The treasury of the history of Ukrainian spirituality includes creative ties with the Kuban Ukrainians T. Shevchenko, Mark Vovchko, I. Franko, P. Kapelgorodsky, V. Samylenko, M. Voronoi, S. Petliura, M. Lysenko, O. Koshytsya, D. Yavornytsky, A. Kashchenko, I. Karpenko-Kary, Dmytro Chub, Vasyl Barka and many other figures of Ukrainian culture. So it is no coincidence that during the liberation struggle of the Ukrainian people here in the Kuban, in 1918, the first textbook for children of the Cossack region "Kuban Primer" was published, which gave the beginnings of Ukrainian grammar, offered small texts to read, including poems by Taras Shevchenko. folk tales and folk calendar rites recorded in the Kuban. The textbook contains a didactic apparatus – a system of questions and tasks for children. This indicates that the Ukrainian school textbook in the Kuban followed the progressive educational requirements of the time. The primer convincingly implemented one of the main principles of pedagogy – the connection of education and upbringing with life, with the surrounding reality: the primer emphasizes the territorial and national affiliation of its readers – students of Kuban. So, in the address to children compilers write: "In Ukraine the main city Kiev. At us in Kuban the main city Ekaterinodar. In Ukraine the largest river Dnieper, and at us Kuban. Our grandfathers lived in Ukraine". Impressive in the 1920’s was the large-scale return to the native language of the adult and child population of the Cossack region. Thus, according to scientific sources, "in 1931 in the region there were 1,200 Ukrainian 1st grade and up to 80 schools of the so-called advanced type, schools of the 2nd grade – SHKM. The circulation of the Red Newspaper increased significantly, amounting to 38 thousand copies. The pedagogical and literary-artistic monthly Novy Shlyakh was popular among the Ukrainian and Russian intelligentsia. – economics, ethnography, literature and linguistic and cultural construction. In addition, the scientific staff of the institute prepared textbooks on the Ukrainian language and literature.In the textbooks on literature, which were prepared and published for Ukrainian schools, the main material was from the classics of Ukrainian literature I. Kotlyarevsky, G. Kvitka-Osnovyanenko, T. Shevchenko, I. Nechuy-Levytsky, etc. At the same time, the compilers of programs, textbooks and support educational literature took into account the achievements of local Ukrainian writers.Thus, in particular, in t he "Circular on the Department of Public Education" for November 1919, the heads of lower and higher educational schools of villages, settlements and cities of the Kuban region were recommended: "In connection with the introduction of native (Ukrainian) language in schools. .. departments at school libraries for which the department has its own catalog. "The same document provided a list of books to study -" List of books for the library in Ukrainian schools "for 130 items, among which were the names and works of Cuban writers J. Kukharenko and V. Mova (Lymansky). Another guiding document of the Kuban District Department of Public Education emphasized the need to collect folklore by middle school students, and offered works "studied against the background of the Kuban region and are a reflection of the Kuban social environment, Kuban nature, etc." Among the recommended for the study of Kuban writers are the names of works by J. Kukharenko, V. Mova (Lymansky), V. Potapenko and other Cuban authors. The same document of public education emphasized the need to collect folklore by middle school students, as well as to study the achievements of local writers, "formed against the background of the Kuban region and are a reproduction of the Kuban social environment, Kuban nature, etc." Among the recommended for study of Kuban writers in conn ection with the interpretation of the concept of "Kuban language" – a dialect of the Ukrainian language – we find the name of the Kuban writer, Ataman of the Kuban Black Sea Army J. Kukharenko. And so that students could see the patterns of development of the Kuban dialect, teachers were recommended to "follow the language of the Kuban writers Kukharenko, Mova (Lymansky), Potapenko and our contemporaries." The play of the glorious ataman "Black Sea beating in the Kuban …" was offered for reading. As the 1930s approached, the political climate in the Soviet Union began to change for the worse: Stalin’s supporters killed the remnants of the "opposition" in the party, and the government embarked on an open path of terror against "class enemies" and their supporters in various fields. public life. Literary studies and methods of literature, prepared by the previous epoch of class hatred, focus on the study (study) of a work of art on the narrow class interests of the party, on the ideology of the proletariat as the sole heir to the literary and cultural heritage of the past. That is why Ya. Kukharenko is considered in one of the textbooks on literature of the early 1930s not so much as a writer who reflected in his heroes the moods and aspirations of the Kuban Cossacks, creating realistic characters of folk heroes, but first of all as an ataman nominated for this position. "Cossack-Glytai top of the Kuban-Black Sea army" and in his poem "Kharko – Zaporozhian Koshov", according to the authors of the textbook, "he quite clearly expressed the nationalist views of the indigenous Black Sea officers …" … This textbook, published in the North Caucasus, was probably only a step forward in the development of a textbook on literature in some parameters of its construction: it is characterized by structured sections and a methodological apparatus added to artistic texts. At the same time, the experience of embodying the latest achievements of methodical thought in it was extinguished by vulgar assessments of literary creativity, a narrow-class approach to the analysis of the ideological and artistic content of works of art. The textbook was aimed at exacerbating class hatred, formed a one-sided understanding of social and cultural phenomena of the time. The work of writers tended to be distorted and distorted to find out: which of the heroes for us, and who – against. This example is not a separate phenomenon in the method of compiling textbooks for Ukrainian North Caucasian schools of that time. A similar trend was characteristic of other literature textbooks. This approach to school study of literature began to prevail in
country, in all unified Soviet education. Subsequently, the Ukrainian school ceased to exist in the Kuban, as in all regions of the Soviet Union, except Ukraine, since then in the Kuban was forbidden to study the works of Ukrainian writers in general, and Ukrainian Kuban in particular. Only 50 years later, in connection with the collapse of the Soviet empire and democratic changes in the republics of the former Soviet Union, the question arose of returning to school the works of Ukrainian writers in the Kuban. Under the influence of democratic processes that swept the Soviet Union in the late 80’s of the twentieth century. and which later destroyed a huge totalitarian state, the revival of Ukrainian spirituality began in the territories of the compact settlement of Ukrainians in the former republics of the USSR. With the uprising in the late twentieth century. Ukraine as a sovereign and independent state has increased public interest in the lives of compatriots in the republics of the former Soviet Union. The desire to help compatriots in their spiritual revival intensified. The concept of the eastern diaspora or eastern abroad has returned to the active vocabulary, by which we mean the areas of compact settlement of Ukrainians in the Green Wedge (areas of the Far East of Russia), Gray Wedge (Kazakhstan), Volga (Russia ), Raspberry Wedge (Kuban, Russia), Northern Slobozhanshchina Kursk, Belgorod and Voronezh regions of the Russian Federation), as well as in the Brest region (Republic of Belarus) and others. One of the problems that worries the public in Ukraine is the revival of Ukrainian education and the Ukrainian school in the Eastern Diaspora. Of course, it is too early to talk about the preparation and publication of literature textbooks (with or without a regional component) for a small number of Ukrainian Saturday or Sunday schools in these places of compact settlement of Ukrainians. At the same time, the names of Ukrainian writers are returning to the school educational process. It is here in the eastern Ukrainian abroad, as in any other region of Ukrainian settlements, that some progress can be observed in the restoration of Ukrainian education, and there are interesting methodological changes. The first attempt in the Eastern Diaspora to return the school to the face of Ukrainian literary traditions was the inclusion in 1994.